top of page

Flight Operations:


Flying technics


Airbus Braking Recommendations

Airbus pilots will find in this Airbus briefing lots of information concerning braking recommendations. This document covers all phases of flight from the preliminary cockpit preparation to the end of of the flight.


Aircraft Energy Management During Approach

Inability to assess or manage the aircraft energy level during the approach often is cited as a causal factor in unstabilized approaches. Either a deficit of energy (being low and/or slow) or an excess of energy (being high and/or fast) may result in approach-and-landing accidents, such as: loss of control, landing short, hard landing, tail strike; runway excursion and/or runway overrun. This Airbus Flight Operations Briefing Note provides background information and operational guidelines for a better understanding of energy management during intermediate approach and during final approach.


Airplane Upset Recovery by Airbus

This Airbus Training Aid itself was the basis of the article entitled “Aerodynamic Principles Of Large Aircraft Upsets” that appeared as a Special Edition of FAST in June 1998


Airplane Upset Recovery by Boeing (Part 1)

The information and techniques presented in this Boeing training aid are aimed at industry solutions for large swept-wing turbofan airplanes typically seating more than 100 passengers.


Airplane Upset Recovery by Boeing (Part 2)

This document is the following of "Airplane Upset Recovery Part 1" training aid.


Approach Hazards Awareness

Factors that may contribute to approach-and- landing accidents include flight over hilly terrain, reduced visibility, visual illusions, adverse winds, contaminated runways and/or limited approach aids. Flight crews should be aware of the compounding nature of these hazards during approach and landing.


Attitude Adjustment

Updates guidance and research findings boost confidence that airplane upset recovery is on the right track


Autoland on Contaminated Runways

Autoland systems were developped for landing in fog but since its introduction, use of autoland has been extended into other areas that were not considered at the outset. Operations on contaminated runways are not considered during certification but the case is practically studied. This article has been published for the 10th Performance and Operations Conference in 1998.


Avoiding Altitude Deviations

This document has been published by the respected and well-known Flight Safety Foundation. Safety can be jeopardized when aircraft deviate from their assigned altitudes. Carefully implemented altitude awareness programs have been adopted by some airlines. These proven programs focus on improving communications, altitude alerter setting procedure, crew prioritization and task allocation, and ensuring correct altimeter settings.


Avoiding Tailstrikes by Airbus

In this document Airbus provides statistics, most common causes, factors affecting the margins, reviews aircraft design features and gives operational recommendations.


Avoiding Tailstrikes by Boeing

Boeing makes here a human factors approach to preventing Tail Strikes. Very interesting document.


Baghdad A300 Incident

This article is a tribute to the DHL Airbus A300 crew who has been hit by a missile while taking off from Baghdad. After having lost hydraulic power, the crew had then to learn how to fly and land an asymmetric aircraft using the only thrust control. Airbus explains this whole incredible and dramatic story.


Bound Recovery and Rejected Landing Techniques

Although a rare occurrence, a rejected landing is a challenging maneuver decided and conducted in an unanticipated and unprepared manner.


Brake Energy Consideration In Flight Operation

Brake energy limitations may not be common for most operators, and so are not well understood


Circle To Land At High and Hot Altitude Airports

Airbus has been asked by some operators to study the case of a circling approach at high altitude airports with one engine failed.This study has shown that the published procedure may not be adequate at high altitude, but also at high temperature.


Crosswind Guidelines

This Boeing document explains origin of crosswind guidelines and reviews crosswind values, crosswind effects on high by-pass engine airplanes and takeoff and landing techniques.


Crosswind Landings Technique

Operations in crosswind conditions require strict adherence to applicable crosswind limitations or maximum recommended crosswind values, operational recommendations and handling techniques, particularly when operating on wet or contaminated runways.


Descent and Approach Profile Management

Inadequate management of descent-and-approach profile and/or incorrect management of aircraft energy level may lead to loss of vertical situational awareness and/or rushed and unstabilized approaches. Either situation increases the risk of approach-and-landing accidents, including those involving CFIT.


Driftdown and Oxygen Procedures Over High Terrain

Driftdown and Oxygen Procedure and lessons learnt from an arline perspective.


Flying Stabilized Approaches

This briefing note is intended to help the reader gain and maintain situational awareness, to prevent falling into the traps associated with the loss of situational awareness and to avoid the adverse effects of the loss of situational awareness on flight safety.


Fuel Conservation Strategies - Cost Index Explained

Used appropriately, the cost index (CI) feature of the flight management computer (FMC) can help airlines significantly reduce operating costs. However, many operators don’t take full advantage of this powerful tool.


Fuel Conservation Strategies : Cruise Flight

A good understanding of cruise flight can not only help crews operate efficiently and save their companies money, but can also help them deal with low fuel situations. As an additional benefit, the less fuel consumed, the more environmentally friendly the flight.


Fuel Conservation Strategies : Descent and Approach

Pilots are often forced to deal with shorter-term restraints that may require them to temporarily abandon their cruise strategy one or more times during a flight.


Fuel Conservation Strategies : Takeoff and Climb

Every takeoff is an opportunity to save fuel. If each takeoff and climb is performed efficiently, an airline can realize significant savings over time. But what constitutes an efficient takeoff? How should a climb be executed for maximum fuel savings? The most efficient flights actually begin long before the airplane is cleared for takeoff.


Getting To Grips With CATII and CATIII

The purpose of this document is to provide Airbus pilots with the agreed interpretations of the currently AWO (All Weather Operations) regulations.


Glasscockpit Transition

This special issue of Flight Safety Digest presents two reports on the experiences of pilots who fly aircraft with “glass cockpits” — that is, modern aircraft with highly automated flight management systems and electronic flight instrument systems. The reports sample the views of line pilots regarding the advantages and disadvantages of flying these advanced-technology aircraft.


Hazards Of Flight In Heavy Rain

In the summer of 1997 there were two accidents, involving the loss of large transport aircraft, which occurred in very heavy rain. The first casualty was a Korean Airlines Boeing 747 which came down on Guam, and the second, a Vietnamese Tupolev in Cambodia. Both aircraft accidents occurred in torrential rain on approach to an airport. Although it may turn out that rain was not a factor in either of these accidents, research indicates that heavy rainfall can have a significant effect on the performance of an aircraft.


High Altitude Handling

Center of gravity (CG) and altitude significantly affect the longitudinal stability of an airplane. An understanding of handling characteristics at various CG positions and altitudes permits flight crews to use proper control inputs when manually flying throughout the flight envelope.


How to Make Go-Arounds Safer

A lack of go around decision is the leading factor in the majority of approach and landing accidents. One in ten go around reports records a potentially hazardous go-around outcome. This article gives some hints on how to make it more efficient and safer.


Insidious Ice

Basic physics makes slippery-runway issues crystal clear!

Landing on Contaminated Runways


Landing on Contaminated Runways involves increased levels of risk related to deceleration and directional control. Aircraft Landing Performance data takes account of the deceleration issues in scheduling the Landing Distance Required (LDR), and the Aircraft Limitations specified in the AFM can be expected to impose a reduced maximum crosswind limitation. Operator Procedures may further restrict all such operations, or impose flight crew-specific restrictions or requirements. Despite all procedural precautions, contaminated runway landings are a rare event for most flight crews and although this serves to ensure a full focus on the task, the lack of real experience, and the limited ability to create realistic scenarios in most simulators, means that a full understanding of the issues involved can be an additional safeguard.


Landing On Slippery Runways

Boeing has recently published a well illustrated document specific to landing on slippery runways. This document reviews available landing data, certified data, QRH adisory data and many other topics.


Landing Overruns

This Boeing document is a review of the events leading to, and lessons learnt from the over-run of Quantas B747-400 at Bangkok Thailand, September 23, 1999.


Let's Be Careful During Visual Approaches

The Flight Safety Foundation Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force found that visual approaches were being conducted in 41 percent of 118 fatal approach-andlanding accidents worldwide in 1980 through 1996


Loss Of Control Returning From Beyond The Envelope

To reduce loss of control accidents, the U.S. government has funded a program to provide airplane-upset-recovery training for 2,000 airline pilots. The training is conducted in an aerobatic single-engine airplane and in a multi-engine jet modified as a variable-stability in-flight simulator.


Moment of Truth

Right adherence to procedures fo takeof weight, enter of gravity and stabilizer trim setting reduces the likehood of uncommanded or delayed rotation


Narrow Runway Operations

Boeing asks a very simple question: "how narrow is narrow?"


Operation With Minimum Fuel

A very interesting and detailed technical article issued by Airbus.


Operations On Grooved Runways

How to improve Stopping Distances on specifically prepared runways.


Optimum Use Of Automation

The term ''optimum use of automation'' refers to the integrated and coordinated use of Autopilot / Flight Director, Autothrottle / autothrust, and Flight Management System.


Overweight Landing What to Consider

An overweight landing is defined as a landing made at a gross weight in excess of the maximum design (i.e., structural) landing weight for a particular model. A pilot may consider making an overweight landing when a situation arises that requires the airplane to return to the takeoff airport or divert to another airport soon after takeoff. In these cases, the airplane may arrive at the landing airport at a weight considerably above the maximum design landing weight. The pilot must then decide whether to reduce the weight prior to landing or land overweight. The weight can be reduced either by holding to burn off fuel or by jettisoning fuel. There are important issues to consider when a decision must be made to land overweight, burn off fuel, or jettison fuel (when possible).


Preparing The Approach In Case Of Engine Failure

In this briefing, Airbus explains how to determine Landing Distance and approach speed determination in case of an engine failure during approach. It also reviews the case of multiple failures, use of the autopilot and autothrottle. This document contents an exhaustive study on a topic rarely detailed.


Preventing Altitude Deviations and Level Busts

This Briefing Note provides an overview of the factors involved in altitude deviations. This document can be used for stand-alone reading or as the basis for the development of an airline’s altitude awareness program.


Preventing Hard Nosegear Touchdowns

In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of significant structural damage to commercial airplanes from hard nosegear touchdowns. In most cases, the main gear touchdowns were relatively normal. The damage resulted from high nose-down pitch rates generated by full or nearly full forward control column application before nosegear touchdown. Flight crews need to be aware of the potential for significant structural damage from hard nosegear contact and know which actions to take to prevent such incidents.


Preventing Tailstrike at Takeoff

The purpose of this Airbus Briefing is to address tailstrikes occurrence at takeoff.


Preventing Tailstrikes At Landing

The purpose of this Airbus Flight Operations Briefing Note is to address tailstrike occurrence at landing.


Proper Landing Technique

This Flight Operations Review has been initialy published by Boeing in 1986. It discussses the key elements that lead to a good landing.


Pushback Hazards

Pushbacks present a potentially serious hazard to ground personnel. From 1964 through December 1991, a search of the Boeing Product Safety Jet Transport Safety Events data base revealed 31 reported accidents worldwide where personnel were run over by the airplane wheels during the pushback process.


Quiet Climb

Boeing has developed the Quiet Climb System, an automated avionics feature for quiet procedures that involve thrust cutback after takeoff. By reducing and restoring thrust automatically, the system lessens crew workload and results in a consistently quiet footprint, which helps airlines comply with restrictions and may allow for an increase in takeoff payload.


Reducing Runway Landing Overruns

Working with industry, Boeing is implementing a combination of procedural improvements, flight crew knowledge, and flight deck enhancements to mitigate runway overrun excursions during landing.


Reducing the Risk of Runway Excursions

At the request of several international aviation organizations in late 2006, the Flight Safety Foundation initiated a project entitled Runway Safety Initiative (RSI) to address the challenge of runway safety. This was an international effort with participants representing the full spectrum of stakeholders from the aviation community. The effort initially reviewed the three areas of runway safety: runway incursions, runway confusion, and runway excursions. After a review of current runway safety efforts, specific data on the various aspects of runway safety were obtained. After reviewing the initial data, the RSI Group determined that it would be most effective to focus its efforts on reducing the risk of runway excursions.


Rejected Landing

A rejected landing (also referred to as an aborted landing) is defined as a go-around maneuver initiated after touchdown of the main landing gear or after bouncing. Although a rare occurrence, a rejected landing is a challenging maneuver decided and conducted in an unanticipated and unprepared manner.


Rejected Takeoff On Slippery Runway

This Flight Safety Foundation produced a very good debriefing of an accident which involved a Tower Air 747 classics on takeoff.


Response To Stall Warning Activation at Takeoff

This Airbus Briefing Note is primarily designed for aircraft that do not have flight envelope protection (e.g. A300/A310/A300-600). However, the key points at the end of this briefing note are also applicable to all aircraft types, with or without flight envelope protection.


Slippery Runways

This article reviews the principles of tire traction, landing techniques and the use of brakes, speedbrakes and reverse thrust to stop the airplane during landing.


Stabilized Approach And Flare Against Hard Landings

Flight crews primarily use their judgment to identify and report hard landings, but recorded flight data also might be useful to gauge the severity of the impact before a conditional maintenance inspection is performed. The accident record shows that hard landings often involve substantial damage and sometimes result in fatalities.


Stop and No Go Decision

A high speed rejected takeoff during the takeoff roll. The decision on whether or not to perform a rejected takeoff -specifically, on whether or not to STOP or GO- requires comprehensive flight crew awareness of the many risks involved. The aim of this Airbus Flight Operations Briefing Note is, therefore, to review the STOP or GO decision-making process, and the associated operational and prevention strategies to be applied, in order to limit the risks of taking inappropriate actions and unsafe decisions.


Tailstrikes In Gusty Wind

This interesting Boeing document reviews causes and prevention, training recommendations and preventive measures to avoid tailstrikes in strong gusty winds.


Tailwind Operations

Tailwind Operations in fixed wing aircraft are considered to be takeoffs or landings with a performance diminishing wind component – that is, a tailwind.


Takeoff and Landing In Icing Conditions

There have been a number of accidents related to take-off in conditions in which snow and/or other forms of freezing precipitation were falling while the aircraft was on the ground preparing for departure. While there is no doubt that air crew have a clear understanding of the legal and airline requirement for "clean" aircraft prior to departure, there are times when pilots must exercise their judgment in determining whether or not small accumulations on the wings or other aerodynamic surfaces constitute accumulations which may have an impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. This article provides additional information on the performance and handling of the aircraft with contamination on the wings and other flying surfaces to assist pilots in making these critical go/ no-go decisions.


Takeoff Rotation

This Airbus production reviews some rotation flying techniques and is written as a reminder of various recommendations. This document is specific to Airbus pilots.


Takeoff Safety Training Aid

Airframe manufacturers, airlines,pilot groups, and government andregulatoryagencies, have developed this training resource dedicated to reducing the number of rejected takeoff (RTO) accidents.


Takeoff With Upper Wing Frost

Airbus Recommendations.


Taxi Procedures

Taxi incidents are usually perceived to be less dangerous than incidents in flight,but they may cost a lot of money! This Airbus document reviews some safety precautions specific to Airbus aircraft, pushback and taxi techniques (One-Engine Taxi - A340 Two Engines), powerpush, taxi with Deflated Tires, etc.


Taxing with Carbon brakes

Carbon brakes are now standard equipment on the Boeing 747-400, 757/767 and 777.The use of these brakes provides a substantial reduction in airplane operating empty weight, but in-service experience has generally shown lower brake life than originally expected. Analysis has revealed a difference between the wear characteristics of carbon versus steel brakes. It is believed that improvements in carbon brake life can be achieved through better understanding of the operational factors affecting carbon brake life.


Understanding Runways Excursions

A runway excursion occurs when an aircraft departs the runway in use during the take-off or landing run. The excursion may be intentional or unintentional. there are 3 main types of Runway Excursion 1. A departing aircraft fails to become airborne or successfully reject the take off before reaching the end of the designated runway. 2. A landing aircraft is unable to stop before the end of the designated runway is reached. 3.An aircraft taking off, rejecting take off or landing departs the side of the designated runway.


Understanding The Stall Recovery Procedure For Turboprop in Icing Conditions

Airframe manufacturers, airlines,pilot groups, and government andregulatoryagencies, have developed this training resource dedicated to reducing the number of rejected takeoff (RTO) accidents.


Unreliable Speed

Recall of the last procedure enhancements.


Use Of Rudder On Airbus Aircraft

On February 8th, 2002, The National Transportation safety Board (NTSB) in cooperation with the French "Bureau Enquetes Accidents" (BEA) issued recommendations that aircraft manufacturers re-emphazise the structural certification requirements for the rudder and vertical stabilizer, showing how some maneuvers can result in exceeding limits and even load to structural failure. The purpose of this Airbus FCOM Bulletin is to re-emphazise proper operational use of the rudder, highlight certification requirements and rudder control design characteristics.



As the computer technology of aircraft navigation systems became more and more sophisticated, aircraft and avionics manufacturers attempt to exploit this computer capability in aircraft operations. One of the most profound capabilities being exploited recently is the aircraft’s capability of navigating vertically on an instrument approach without reference to an external electronic guidance signal such as an ILS glideslope or MLS elevation signal. This mode of operation is called “VNAV”. The vertical guidance is usually based on barometric altimetry augmented with information from a mix of navigation sensors. Vertical command information may be retrieved from the aircraft’s aeronautical information database or from the pilot’s input into the Flight Management System (FMS). Vertical command information while conducting VNAV on a conventional non-precision approach is normally retrieved entirely from the aircraft’s aeronautical database.



The U.S. Federal Aviation Regulations and the European Joint Aviation Requirements redefined V1 as the maximum airspeed at which a flight crew must take the first action to safely reject a takeoff. Other revisions change the method of compensating for the time required by pilots to take action to reject a takeoff; require accelerate-stop data based on airplanes with fully worn brakes; and require wet-runway takeoff-performance data in airplane flight manuals.


Visual Approaches

A surprising number of aircraft accidents have occurred during visual approaches or during the visual segment following an instrument approach. An interesting review initiated by Captain Fred H. LORENZ has been published sometime ago.


Visual Illusions

Visual illusions result from many factors and appear in many different forms. Illusions occur when conditions modify the pilot’s perception of the environment relative to his or her expectations, possibly resulting in spatial disorientation or landing errors (e.g., landing short or landing long).


Wake Turbulence Awareness and Avoidance

The objective of this briefing is to provide information to help recognize the factors that increase the risk of a wake vortex encounter, Flying techniques to avoid wake turbulence and the information to help recognize the effects of wake turbulence.


What Lies Below

Plan to avoid the rocks during an emergency descent.


Why and When To Perform a Go Around Maneuver

Industry statistics indicate that while only 3 percent of commercial-airplane-landing approaches meet the criteria for being unstabilized, 97 percent of these unstabilized approaches are continued to a landing, contrary to airline standard operating procedures. Most runway excursions can be attributed at least in part to unstabilized approaches, and runway excursions in several forms are the leading cause of accidents and incidents within the industry. Airlines should emphasize to flight crews the importance of making the proper go-around decision if their landing approach exhibits any element of an unstabilized approach.

bottom of page